This is also called “the silent period,” when the student takes in the new language but does not speak it. This period often lasts six weeks or longer, depending on the individual.
The student begins to speak using short words and sentences, but the emphasis is still on listening and absorbing the new language. There will be many errors in the early production stage.
Speech becomes more frequent, words and sentences are longer, but the student still relies heavily on context clues and familiar topics. Vocabulary continues to increase and errors begin to decrease, especially in common or repeated interactions.
It is easy to communicate in the second language, especially in social contexts. In new circumstances or academic subjects, the student can talk almost fluently, but there will be gaps in vocabulary and certain unfamiliar expressions. There are minimal mistakes, and the person can display higher-order thinking skills in the second language, such as expressing an opinion or analyzing an issue.